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CANCER Surgery Treatment

Best Cancer Surgery Treatment India

Best Cancer Surgery Treatment India Simply involves removal of a cancerous tumor. It works best on localized cancers that haven’t yet spread to other parts of the body, and is often followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to make sure all cancerous cells have been removed.

Preventive Surgery
It is used to keep cancer from occurring. Many colon cancers can be prevented by removing precancerous polyps before they become malignant. A woman at very high risk for breast cancer may decide to have her breasts removed rather than worry about getting breast cancer later in life.

Reconstructive Surgery
It returns the body to normal or near-normal appearance or function following cancer treatment. The most common restorative surgery is breast reconstruction after a mastectomy. Facial reconstruction and testicular implants are also examples of reconstructive best cancer surgery treatment India

Staging Surgery
It is used to determine the extent of a cancer. This procedure can sometimes be done without an incision by using tiny cameras (scopes) attached to a flexible tube, which are inserted into natural body openings. An endoscope is used in hollow body cavities and organs such as the lungs, intestinal tract and urinary tract. Besides allowing surgeons to view the suspicious area, these devices can take a tissue sample. A laparoscope is used to view the abdominal cavity. Laparotomy involves a small incision in the abdominal cavity, done under general anesthesia. Laparotomies are used when the suspicious area cannot be examined by less invasive procedures.

CHEMO therapy
Use of drugs to destroy cancer cells. It works by stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells, which grow and divide quickly. But it can also harm healthy cells that divide quickly, such as those that line your mouth and intestines or cause your hair to grow. Damage to healthy cells may cause side effects. Often, side effects get better or go away after chemotherapy is over.

Depending on your type of cancer and how advanced it is, chemotherapy can:

SPINE Surgery includes

  • Cure Cancer – when chemotherapy destroys cancer cells to the point that your doctor can no longer detect them in your body and they will not grow back.
  • Control Cancer – when chemotherapy keeps cancer from spreading, slows its growth, or destroys cancer cells that have spread to other parts of your body.
  • Ease Cancer Symptoms (also called palliative care) – when chemotherapy shrinks tumors that are causing pain or pressure.

Why Chemotherapy is used?

  • Make a tumor smaller before surgery or radiation therapy. This is called neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Destroy cancer cells that may remain after surgery or radiation therapy. This is called adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Help radiation therapy and biological therapy works better.
  • Destroy cancer cells that have come back (recurrent cancer) or spread to other parts of your body (metastatic cancer).

How Chemotherapy is given?

  • Injection – The chemotherapy is given by a shot in a muscle in your arm, thigh, or hip or right under the skin in the fatty part of your arm, leg, or belly.
  • Intra-Arterial (IA) – The chemotherapy goes directly into the artery that is feeding the cancer.
  • Intraperitoneal (IP) – The chemotherapy goes directly into the peritoneal cavity (the area that contains organs such as your intestines, stomach, liver, and ovaries).
  • Intravenous (IV) – The chemotherapy goes directly into a vein.
  • Topically – The chemotherapy comes in a cream that you rub onto your skin.
  • Orally – The chemotherapy comes in pills, capsules, or liquids that you swallow.

RADIATION therapy
Radiation is a form of energy released in particles or waves. In high doses, radiation destroys cells or keeps them from multiplying.

Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. Its goal is to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Unlike cancer cells, most of your normal cells recover from radiation therapy. Doctors try to protect normal cells by limiting the radiation dosage and spreading best cancer surgery treatment India out over time. When they use radiation machines, they shield as much of your body as possible while targeting the cancer.

Types of Radiation Therapy
External People who are having external radiation treatments usually don’t need to stay in the hospital overnight. They usually visit the hospital or treatment centre for 5 days a week (with weekends off) of period 2-8 weeks in total. The weekend breaks help the normal cells to recover from radiation. Common types are:

Conventional external beam radiation therapy

  • Conventional external beam radiation therapy also known as 2DXRT mainly consists of a single two-dimensional beam of radiation delivered to the patient from different directions using linear accelerator machines.
  • Stereotactic radiation is a specialized type of external beam radiation therapy targeting a well-defined tumor using extremely detailed imaging scans. There are two types of stereotactic radiation.
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is when doctors use a single or several stereotactic radiation treatments of the brain or spine.
  • Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) refers to one or several stereotactic radiation treatments with the body, such as the lungs.
  • Stereotactic treatments can be confusing because many hospitals call the treatments by the name of the manufacturer rather than calling it SRS or SBRT. Brand names for these treatments include Axesse, Cyberknife, Gamma Knife, Novalis, Primatom, Synergy, X-Knife, TomoTherapy, Trilogy and Truebeam. This list changes as equipment manufacturers continue to develop new, specialized technologies to treat cancers.

Others
With the advances in the medical technology, the doctors can now plan Radiation therapy by delineating tumors and adjacent normal structures in three dimensions using specialized CT and/or MRI scanners.Best Cancer Surgery Treatment India

  • Virtual Simulation allows more accurate placement of radiation beam
  • 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3DCRT) is an enhancement of virtual simulation in which the radiation beam conforms to the shape of the tumor. Thus, the radiation to the surrounding normal tissues is reduced, allowing a higher dose of radiation to be delivered to the tumor than conventional techniques would allow.
  • Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an enhancement of 3DCRT which improves the ability to conform the treatment to concave tumor shapes, for ex when the tumor is wrapped around the spinal cord or a major organ or blood vessel. The use of IMRT is growing in more complicated body sites such as CNS, head & neck, prostate, breast and lung.
  • Image-Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) or four-dimensional radiation therapy is real-time imaging combined with real-time adjustment of the therapeutic beams.

Internal
Internal radiation therapy, the patient stays in the hospital for a few days. The implant may be temporary or permanent. Because the level of radiation is highest during the hospital stay, patients may not be able to have visitors or may have visitors only for a short time. Once an implant is removed, there is no radioactivity in the body. The amount of radiation in a permanent implant goes down to a safe level before the patient leaves the hospital.

  • Brachytherapy is delivered by placing radiation source(s) inside or next to the area requiring treatment. This means that the irradiation only affects a very localized area – exposure to radiation of healthy tissues further away from the sources is reduced. These characteristics of brachytherapy provide advantages over external beam radiation therapy. Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical, prostate, breast, and skin cancer.

Factor affecting the type of radiation therapy prescribed:
The precise treatment intent i.e. whether the nature of best cancer surgery treatment India being planned is curative, adjuvant, neoadjuvant, therapeutic, or palliative will depend on the tumor type, location, and stage, as well as the general health of the patient. To summarize, it depends on the following factors:

  • The type of cancer.
  • The size of the cancer.
  • The cancer’s location in the body.
  • How close the cancer is to normal tissues that are sensitive to radiation.
  • How far into the body the radiation needs to travel.
  • The patient’s general health and medical history.
  • Whether the patient will have other types of cancer treatment.
  • Other factors, such as the patient’s age and other medical conditions.

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